A full 27% of Dutch households had no car, moped, motor bike, scooter or van in 2016, the national statistics agency CBS said on Thursday.
In the three million households in the lowest income group, 46% had no form of motorised transport while 27% did not have a driving licence. But nearly all higher-income households had a car, the CBS said.
Most households without motorised transport were in urban areas where 63% had low disposable incomes.
Car-less household were most often found in cities with big student populations. In Groningen, for example, 43.9% of households had a low disposable income and thus had no motorised transport. The northern student city was followed by Wageningen (39.8%) and Delft with 38.3%.
Of the households with motorised transport, 95.3% had a car and 30% had two or more cars.