At least seven of the 14 main parties competing in the general election have included plans in their manifestos which conflict with the constitution, according to the Dutch bar association Nova.
Most of the ‘red cards’ related to immigration and refugees, and involve openly discriminating against certain groups of people or denying people access to an independent judiciary, Nova said.
The VVD, for example, wants to adapt or pull out of the United Nation’s refugee treaty, while the CDA would be breaking the law by cancelling refugee permits for people deemed to be ‘radicalised’.
The PVV would ‘turn its back on the fundamentals of rule of law’ by banning immigration from Islamic countries and Forum voor Democratie wants to pull out of the International Criminal Court and the European Court of Human Rights.
The Socialist Party, new right-wing party, JA21 and fundamentalist Protestant SGP also all include pledges which would currently be unconstitutional, Nova said.
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