The KNMI weather bureau has issued a code yellow weather warning for the provinces of Overijssel, Gelderland, Brabant and Limburg, citing windchill temperatures of between minus 12°C and minus 15°C.
There is a higher risk of hypothermia and other harmful effects of exposure to extreme cold, the KNMI said, adding that people should wear layers of clothing and keep out of the wind.
The warning will last until well into the morning when temperatures are expected to rise again, but they are expected to remain below freezing all day except on the coastal fringes.
On Tuesday and Wednesday night the thermometer could dip as low as minus 8ºC, while daytime temperatures will hover around zero. Thursday will bring warmer conditions but also more cloud cover, as temperatures rise to 5C in Noord-Holland.
The rain is forecast to return on Friday, while the rest of January is expected to bring daytime temperatures of 6C or 7C, moderate winds and light to moderate rain.