Telecom watchdog Opta has fined three Dutch firms and their two directors a total of €1m for the illegal distribution of spyware.
It is the first time fines have been imposed for the distribution of unsolicited software, said Opta in a statement on Tuesday.
The firms involved operate under the name DollarRevenue.
In total more than 450 million software files have been installed on 22 million computers in the Netherlands and abroad.
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