There was ground frost in eastern parts of the country overnight, with the temperature dipping to as low as -2.8 Celsius in Gelderland, according to RTL weather forecaster Amara Onwuka.
The previous record low for May 24 was -0.6 Celsius nine years ago, Onwuka said.
The cold weather, which has led to temperatures no warmer than 10 Celsius in places during the day, will continue in to the weekend.
On Friday, cold weather records are likely to be broken again, as the temperature hovers between 8 and 11 Celsius. The coldest May 24 on record was 10.4 and dates from 1975.
The temperature at the end of May usually averages around 18 Celcius.