Opinion pieces, columns and insights into Dutch news and current affairs from key commentators


Is a university campus prayer room any different to providing a bar?

Is a university campus prayer room any different to providing a bar?

Universities provide bars, yoga classes and gyms on their campuses, so why not places where students of every religion can go to pray? asks Molly Quell.Last week, Delta, the Delft University of Technology magazine, reported that the university was investigating how to provide silent rooms on campus. The same week, the AD reported that students in The Hague had requested a prayer room.Judging from the reaction in the media, you could have mistakenly thought Muslim students at these schools had demanded the forced conversions of the princesses.The AD had something to say. Omroep West reported on it. PowNed had a story. Geen Stijl voiced their thoughts. Even the JOVD (the youth wing of the VVD) had something to say.The JOVD column reads, in part: 'A university should be a secular place where the gathering of scientific knowledge is the main aim and, therefore, there is no place for religious expression.'PubsSo I fully expect to see the JOVD calling for the closure of TU Delft’s nine faculty pubs and protesting outside the pottery class offered by the Culture Centre.It’s not the first time this conflict has arisen. In 2012, Nos reported that students at The Hague's hbo college had requested prayer rooms. At the time, it was pointed out that universities in Leiden, Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Maastricht all offered prayer or meditation rooms for their students.These universities certainly have no problems accepting tuition money from international students, but when asked to fulfil those students needs, suddenly campus is only for academics.Student lifeThe reality is universities play a much larger role in the lives of their students and staff than merely a place to study and work, something that is clearly visible in the amenities offered by modern institutions: bars, cafes, sports facilities, concerts, festivals, yoga classes, debates and movie showings.It seems to me that if the university can indulge my need for an afternoon beer, they can accommodate a group of students who would like a quiet space to pray.And if you want to argue that the university is no place for religion, then you'd better also be arguing in favour of classes on Whit Monday. Otherwise someone might mistake you for a bigot.Molly Quell is the international editor of Delta and a journalist based in Delft. The opinions expressed here are entirely her own. You can find her on Twitter at @mollyquell.   More >


Long read: Why we should give free money to everyone

We tend to think that simply giving people money makes them lazy. Yet a wealth of scientific research shows the contrary: free money helps lift people out of poverty. The time has come for a radical reform of the welfare state, writes Dutch author Rutger Bregman.London, May 2009—An experiment is underway. Its subjects: 13 homeless men. They are veterans of the street. Some have been sleeping on the cold pavement of the Square Mile, Europe’s financial centre, for going on 40 years. Between the police expenses, court costs and social services, these 13 troublemakers have racked up a bill estimated at £400,000 or more. Per year.The strain on city services and local charities is too great for things to go on this way. So Broadway, a London-based aid organisation, makes a radical decision. From now on, the City’s 13 consummate drifters will be getting VIP treatment. It’s adiós to the daily helpings of food stamps, soup kitchens and shelters. They’re getting a drastic and instantaneous bailout.From now on, these rough sleepers will receive free money.To be exact, they’re getting £3,000 in spending money, and they don’t have to do a thing in return. How they spend it is up to them. They can opt to make use of an adviser if they’d like—or not. There are no strings attached, no questions to trip them up.The only thing they’re asked is: What do you think you need?Gardening glasses'I didn’t have enormous expectations,' one of the experiment’s social workers later recalled. But the drifters’ desires proved eminently modest. A telephone, a dictionary, a hearing aid—each had his own ideas about what he needed. In fact, most were downright thrifty. After one year, each had spent an average of just £800.Take Simon, who had been strung out on heroin for 20 years. The money turned his life around. Simon got clean and started taking gardening classes. 'For some reason, for the first time in my life, everything just clicked,' he said later. 'I’m starting to look after myself, wash and shave. Now I’m thinking of going back home. I’ve got two kids.'A year and a half after the experiment began, seven of the 13 rough sleepers had a roof over their heads. Two more were about to move into their own apartments. All 13 had taken critical steps toward solvency and personal growth. They were enrolled in classes, learning to cook, going through rehab, visiting their families and making plans for the future.'It empowers people,' one of the social workers involved in the project said about the personalised budget. 'It gives choices. I think it can make a difference.'After decades of fruitless pushing, pulling, pampering, penalising, prosecuting and protecting, nine notorious vagrants had finally been brought in from the streets. The cost? Some £50,000 a year, including the social workers’ wages. In other words, not only did the project help nine people, it also cut costs considerably. Even the Economist had to conclude that the 'most efficient way to spend money on the homeless might be to give it to them'.Hard dataPoor people can’t handle money. This seems to be the prevailing sentiment, almost a truism. After all, if they knew how to manage money, how could they be poor in the first place? We assume they must spend it on fast food and soda instead of on fresh fruit and books. So to 'help', we’ve rigged up a myriad of ingenious assistance programmes, with reams of paperwork, registration systems and an army of inspectors, all revolving around the biblical principle that 'those unwilling to work will not get to eat' (2 Thessalonians 3:10). Touted as a shift 'from welfare to workfare', the underlying message is clear: free money makes people lazy.Except that according to the evidence, it doesn’t.Already, research has correlated unconditional cash disbursements with reductions in crime, child mortality, malnutrition, teenage pregnancy and truancy, and with improved school performance, economic growth and gender equality. 'The big reason poor people are poor is because they don’t have enough money,' noted economist Charles Kenny in Bloomberg Businessweek, 'and it shouldn’t come as a huge surprise that giving them money is a great way to reduce that problem.'In their book Just Give Money to the Poor (2010), scholars at the University of Manchester furnish countless examples of cases where cash handouts with few or no strings attached have worked. In Namibia, figures for malnutrition took a nosedive (from 42% to 10%), as did those for truancy (from 40% to virtually 0%) and crime (by 42%).In Malawi, school attendance among girls and women surged 40%, regardless of whether the cash came with or without conditions. Time and again, the ones to profit most are children. They suffer less hunger and disease, grow taller, perform better at school and are less likely to be forced into child labour.From Brazil to India, from Mexico to South Africa, cash transfer programmes have become all the rage across the Global South. By 2010, they were already reaching more than 110 million families in 45 countries.The great thing about money is that people can use it to buy things they need, instead of things that self-appointed experts think they need. And, as it happens, there is one category of product on which poor people do not spend their free money, and that’s alcohol and tobacco. In fact, a major study by the World Bank demonstrated that in 95% of all researched cases in Africa, Latin America and Asia, alcohol and tobacco consumption either remained the same or declined.But it gets even stranger. In Liberia, an experiment was conducted to see what would happen if you gave $200 to the shiftiest of the poor. Alcoholics, addicts and petty criminals were rounded up from the slums. Three years later, what had they spent the money on? Food, clothing, medicine and small businesses. 'If these men didn’t throw away free money,' one of the researchers wondered, 'who would?'UtopiaFree money. It’s a notion already proposed by some of history’s leading thinkers. Thomas More dreamed about it in his book Utopia in 1516. Countless economists and philosophers—Nobel Prize winners among them—would follow. Its proponents have spanned the spectrum from left to right, all the way to the founders of neoliberal thought, Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman. And Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) promises that, one day, it will come.A universal basic guaranteed income.And not merely for a few years, or in developing countries alone, or only for the poor, but just what it says on the box: free money for everyone. Not as a favour, but as a right. Call it the 'capitalist road to communism'. A monthly allowance, enough to live on, without having to lift a finger. The only condition, as such, is that you 'have a pulse'. No inspectors looking over your shoulder to see if you’ve spent it wisely; nobody questioning if it’s really deserved. No more special benefit and assistance programmes; at most an additional allowance for seniors, the unemployed and those unable to work.Basic income: it’s an idea whose time has come.Mincome, CanadaIn a warehouse attic in Winnipeg, Canada, nearly 2,000 boxes lie gathering dust. The boxes are filled with data—graphs, tables, reports, interviews—about one of the most fascinating social experiments in post-war history.Evelyn Forget, a professor at the University of Manitoba, first heard about the records in 2004. For five long years she tried to convince Canada’s national archives to allow her access to the warehouse. Finally, in 2009, she succeeded. Stepping into the attic for the first time, Forget could hardly believe her eyes. It was a treasure trove of information on the real-world implementation of Thomas More’s dream from five centuries earlier.In March 1973, the provincial government of Manitoba earmarked a sum of $83 million in modern U.S. dollars for the project. They chose Dauphin, a small town of 13,000 northwest of Winnipeg, as the location of the experiment. Everybody in Dauphin was guaranteed a basic income, ensuring that no one fell below the poverty line. In practise, this meant 30% of the town’s inhabitants—1,000 families in all—got a check in the mail each month. A family of four received what would now be around $19,000 a year, no questions asked.For four years, all went well, but then elections threw a spanner in the works. A conservative government was voted into power. The new Canadian cabinet saw little point to the expensive experiment, for which the national government was footing three-quarters of the bill. When it became clear the new administration wouldn’t even fund an analysis of the experiment’s results, the researchers decided to pack their files away in some 2,000 boxes.When Professor Forget first heard about Mincome, no one knew what, if anything, the experiment had actually demonstrated. For three years, she rigorously subjected the data to all manner of statistical analysis. No matter what she tried, the results were the same every time.Mincome had been a resounding success.From experiment to law'Politically, there was a concern that if you began a guaranteed annual income, people would stop working and start having large families,' said Forget.What really happened was precisely the opposite. Young adults postponed getting married, and birthrates dropped. Their school performance improved substantially. The 'Mincome cohort' studied harder and faster. In the end, total work hours only notched down 1% for men, 3% for married women and 5% for unmarried women. Men who were family breadwinners hardly worked less at all, while new mothers used the cash assistance to take several months’ maternity leave, and students to stay at school longer.Forget’s most remarkable finding, though, was that hospitalisations decreased by as much as 8.5%. Considering the size of public spending on health care in the developed world, the financial implications were huge. Several years into the experiment, domestic violence was also down, as were mental health complaints. Mincome had made the whole town healthier. Forget could even trace the impacts of receiving a basic income through to the next generation, both in earnings and in health.Dauphin—the town with no poverty—was one of five guaranteed income experiments in North America. The other four were all conducted in the United States. Few people today are aware that the United States was just a hair’s breadth from realising a social safety net at least as extensive as those in most western European countries. When President Lyndon B. Johnson declared his 'War on Poverty' in 1964, Democrats and Republicans alike rallied behind fundamental welfare reforms.First, however, some trial runs were needed. Tens of millions of dollars were budgeted to provide a basic income for more than 8,500 Americans in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Iowa, North Carolina, Indiana, Seattle and Denver in what were also the first-ever large-scale social experiments to distinguish experimental and control groups. The researchers wanted answers to three questions: (1) Would people work significantly less if they received a guaranteed income? (2) Would the programme be too expensive? (3) Would it prove politically unfeasible?The answers were no, no and yes.Declines in working hours were limited across the board. '[The] declines in hours of paid work were undoubtedly compensated in part by other useful activities, such as search for better jobs or work in the home,' noted the Seattle experiment’s concluding report. For example, one mother who had dropped out of high school worked less in order to earn a degree in psychology and get a job as a researcher. Another woman took acting classes; her husband began composing music. 'We’re now self-sufficient, income-earning artists,' she told the researchers. Among the young included in the experiment, almost all the hours not spent on paid work went into more education. Among the New Jersey subjects, the rate of high school graduations rose 30%.And thus, in August 1968, President Nixon presented a bill providing for a modest basic income, calling it 'the most significant piece of social legislation in our nation’s history'. A White House poll found 90% of all newspapers enthusiastically receptive to the plan. The National Council of Churches was in favour, and so were the labour unions and even the corporate sector (see Brian Steensland’s book The Failed Welfare Resolution, page 69). At the White House, a telegram arrived declaring: 'Two upper middle class Republicans who will pay for the programme say bravo.' Pundits were even going around quoting Victor Hugo—'Nothing is stronger than an idea whose time has come.'It seemed that the time for a basic income had well and truly arrived.'Welfare Plan Passes House [...] a Battle Won in Crusade for Reform,' was the headline of the New York Times on April 16, 1970. With 243 votes for and 155 against, President Nixon’s Family Assistance Plan (FAP) was approved by an overwhelming majority. Most pundits expected the plan to pass the Senate, too, with a membership even more progressive than that of the House of Representatives. But in the Senate Finance Committee, doubts were raised. 'This bill represents the most extensive, expensive and expansive welfare legislation ever handled,' one Republican senator said. Most vehemently opposed, however, were the Democrats. They felt the FAP didn’t go far enough and pushed for an even higher basic income. After months of being batted back and forth between the Senate and the White House, the bill was finally canned.In the following year, Nixon presented a slightly tweaked proposal to Congress. Once again, the bill was accepted by the House, now as part of a larger package of reforms. In his 1971 State of the Union address, Nixon considered his plan to 'place a floor under the income of every family with children in America' the most important item of legislation on his agenda (see Steensland, page 157).But once again, the bill foundered in the Senate.Not until 1978 was the plan for a basic income shelved once and for all, however, following a fatal discovery upon publication of the final results of the Seattle experiment. One finding in particular grabbed everybody’s attention. The number of divorces had jumped more than 50%. Interest in this statistic quickly overshadowed all the other outcomes, such as better school performance and improvements in health. A basic income, evidently, gave women too much independence.Ten years later, a re-analysis of the data revealed that a statistical error had been made. In reality, there had been no change in the divorce rate at all.'It Can Be Done! Conquering Poverty in America by 1976,' Nobel Prize winner James Tobin confidently wrote in 1967. At that time, almost 80% of Americans supported a guaranteed basic income. Years later, Ronald Reagan would famously sneer: 'In the ’60s we waged a war on poverty, and poverty won.'Yet some ideas just won’t die.Recent years have seen basic income make a comeback on political agendas. Switzerland is already looking forward to a referendum. Large-scale experiments have been announced in Finland and Canada, and plans are in the works in nearly 20 cities in the Netherlands. Even in Silicon Valley, basic income is the talk of the town.Maybe now the time has come that we can finally be rid of that pointless distinction between two types of poor—and to the major misconception that we almost managed to dispel some 40 years ago: the fallacy that a life without poverty is a privilege you have to work for, rather than a right we all deserve.Remember: the great milestones of civilization always have the whiff of utopia about them at first. But almost as soon as a utopia becomes a reality, it often comes to be seen as utterly commonplace. Utopias always start out small, with experiments that ever so slowly change the world.It happened just a few years ago on the streets of London, when 13 street sleepers got £3,000, no questions asked. As one of the aid workers said, 'It’s quite hard to just change overnight the way you’ve always approached this problem. These pilots give us the opportunity to talk differently, think differently, describe the problem differently...'And that’s how all progress begins.Rutger Bregman (1988) is the author of Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek, available in English and published by The Correspondent. Like him on Facebook and follow him on Twitter @rcbregman.Translated from Dutch by Elizabeth Manton.  More >


The Ukraine referendum was a thrashing the government deserved

The Ukraine referendum was a thrashing the government deserved

The government and Brussels may have deserved the thrashing they got on referendum day but the results are a wake-up call for ministers and voters, say economists Rick van der Ploeg and Willem Vermeend.There are only a few countries in the world where an advisory or binding referendum is part of the democratic tool box. It is generally thought to have too many disadvantages, reason why most have chosen a democratic system in which chosen representatives and administrators take policy decisions after having weighed all the options. Every four or so years voters judge their performance. This is the system that we have in the Netherlands.The main disadvantage of a referendum is that voters are limited to either a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’. There is no room for nuance or arguments. Fact is that only enthusiastic yes and no voters take to the ballot; those who have no particular sentiment about the subject or don’t feel they want to vote, don’t. That leaves us with an extremely one-sided version of the real state of affairs.A referendum about economic or financial issues has the potential to do serious damage to the economy and employment and can weaken the international position of a country. That is why binding referendums are very few and far between.Since July 15 2015, a private members bill introduced by D66, Labour and GroenLinks has made it possible for citizens to initiate an advisory referendum on certain bills and treaties. A binding referendum is not possible in the Netherlands without a change to the constitution.On April 6 the bill came into effect for the first time. Looking at the result, the question is whether the MPs are still happy about their bill. Opponents of the association treaty with Ukraine, PVV and SP voters in particular, voted in their droves and achieved a resounding victory: over 60% of voters said ‘no’. As a sufficient number of people in favour also turned up, the required 30% election threshold was achieved forcing prime minister Mark Rutte to reconsider the Dutch ratification of the treaty.Not a celebration of democracyAccording to the no camp this referendum was a ‘celebration of democracy’. We begrudge no one a good party but it really really wasn’t: almost 70% of voters stayed at home, and many yes voters are sorry they voted at all. If more pro-treaty people had stayed at home (some 300,000) the election threshold wouldn’t have been reached and nothing would have stood in the way of ratification.They had, moreover, very good reasons not to participate. In an interview in the NRC two of the referendum’s organisers said the whole circus surrounding the treaty was simply an excuse. Their real aim was to use the ballot box to mobilise opponents of Europe and the cabinet to start a process which should ultimately lead to the Netherlands leaving the EU. They also made it very clear that the real aim was to damage the image of the Netherlands in the EU. If the reactions in the international media are anything to go by they did a good job.EmbarrassingThe referendum result caused a media storm not only in Europe but the United States too. The general tenor of the comments was best expressed by a headline in the British press: ‘An embarrassment for the Dutch government’. The fact that Rutte and his ministers are heeding a small group of rabid Eurosceptics intending to do damage to their country and the EU also raised eyebrows. Of all 28 member states, only the Netherlands is being difficult. Word in international business circles is that the business climate in the Netherlands has been damaged.The referendum winners are clearly not bothered by this. On the contrary, they are already looking forward to a referendum on the European trade treaties with the US (TTIP) and Canada. With the referendum law the way it is, chances are they will win this one as well. Fanatical and passionate opponents of Europe and multinationals will vote in their droves and the average voter, with no particular interest in the matter, will stay at home.The organisers will launch clever internet campaigns, something the makers of the referendum law have not taken into account. If the cabinet wants to avoid more damage being done to the Netherlands it will have to adapt the referendum rules, or withdraw the law completely.Wake up callIt has to be said that the cabinet as well as Brussels have only themselves to blame for this thrashing. The cabinet pro-treaty campaign, such as it was, was very poor compared to the opponents’ media savvy one.Rutte is still failing to make clear to Brussels that the Netherlands insists the European rules be changed and that means greater national sovereignty and European rules only when they have a clear added value, for instance in matters concerning security and the economy.At the moment the reverse is true and that is fuelling anger all over the EU. This can’t be ignored any longer. That is why we expect the outcome of the referendum to be a  wake-up call for policy makers as well as voters.In the Netherlands some two million jobs depend directly on international trade, mostly within the EU. Hundreds of thousands of people are working in companies dependent on trade  with the export sector. All these people are voters whose livelihoods depend on business. They have nothing to gain from political parties wanting to leave the EU and certainly not from referendum organisers who want to damage the economy. That should be reason enough to go out and vote.This column appeared earlier in the Telegraaf  More >


We’re in the money: how will political parties spend €27bn?

We’re in the money: how will political parties spend €27bn?

According to the CPB, it looks like the political parties can actually afford to go on a spending spree, writes Mathijs Bouman. The macro-economic think tank traditionally analyses party manifestos in the run up to the general election.Every time the CPB analyses election programmes, politicians grumble. But this year their grumble has turned into a wail. Ahead of the national elections in 2017, CDA, Labour and D66 have publicly vented their unwillingness to participate in this uniquely Dutch tradition. SP, GroenLinks and SGP are still thinking about it.I have to admit I have always been in two minds about the method used by the CPB. In order to prevent parties from being rewarded for squandering money, the CPB looks at the long-term effects of the election programmes. It makes sense as an idea but what actually happens is that, come campaigning time, politicians start pounding each other with figures about job growth in 2040. That, inevitably, leads to nonsensical discussions.Be preciseOn the other hand, the CPB analysis is a great way of infusing some discipline into the writers of the election programmes. Political parties who promise to lower taxes, increase spending while claiming the budget deficit will fall, will feel the cold steel of the CPB dissecting knife.What is more, they need to be precise. ‘We will reduce health care costs’ is not going to cut it with the CPB. By how much? How? When and who will benefit? The CPB wants to know. If you really want to know what political parties are up to, a CPB analysis will tell you more than an election programme.That is why I would be sorry if the programmes for 2017 weren’t subjected to the CPB treatment. Fortunately chances are that the parties will change their minds and participate after all. Firstly, because they don’t want their opponents to accuse them of cowardice and secondly, because this time around an analysis could actually work in their favour. There is money in the kitty in the coming years, lots of it.Something for everyoneAt least that is what the CPB’s latest economic forecast tells us. This can be seen as a baseline measurement for the elections: how would the economy fare if policies remain the same? These data matter to election programme writers because it shows how much room there is for extra spending and tax relief.It turns out there is quite a bit of room. After years of cutbacks and tax increases the budget is looking very healthy. It’s so healthy in fact that the Netherlands will meet all European budget rules in 2021. The budget deficit will become a budget surplus and public debt will go down to under 60% of GDP.Other requirements, for instance regarding the structural deficit and increases in public spending, are within the boundaries as well. That gives left-wing parties an opportunity to come up with plans to tackle income inequality while right-wing parties can tout tax relief. There’s something for everyone.How to spend €27bnSo how much can the parties bet on their various hobby horses? It’s not easy to say. It all depends which budget rules you want to continue to meet. I will try anyway. Officially, the structural deficit in 2021 cannot exceed 0.5% of GDP. According to the CPB we will be looking at a 0.1% surplus. The resulting margin is 0.6 % or some €5bn for new policies.That is something but it gets better. Taking into account the maximum allowed collective spending increase of 0.9% a year, the government can spend as much as an extra €24bn in 2021. The deficit will go up but will stay under the 3% limit. To reach that limit spending can go up to €27bn. That would worry Brussels a little but not enough to dole out a fine.The sweet shop is open for business. The billions are there for the spending. What politician is going to resist? The analysts at the CPB are rolling up their sleeves as we speak.This column was published earlier in the Financieele Dagblad   More >


The Ukraine referendum is cynical, manipulative and one we should boycott

The Ukraine referendum is cynical, manipulative and one we should boycott

The Ukraine referendum is cynical, manipulative and all about fake democracy - so not something we should be voting in, writes DutchNews.nl editor Robin Pascoe.Tomorrow (April 6) the Dutch will be able to vote in a referendum on the EU's treaty of association with Ukraine.The vote is only open to Dutch nationals and the result of the referendum is only advisory – and it won’t have any official weight unless 30% of the electorate turn out. The Netherlands has, after all, already said it backs the treaty.So what is tomorrow’s vote really all about?The referendum on Ukraine is not about the treaty. It is about testing Dutch public opinion on the EU in general.  The campaign for a referendum was driven by anti-EU campaigners who have admitted they want to put pressure on the relationship between the Netherlands and the EU and deliberately looked for an issue they could use.Don’t care‘We really don’t care about Ukraine, you need to understand that,’ Arjan van Dixhoorn, professor of history at Utrecht University College Roosevelt and chairman of the Burgercomite EU, told the NRC newspaper last week.‘We waited two years for the referendum law to come into force,’ said committee member Pepijn van Houwelingen who works for the government’s social policy unit SCP.‘We checked what laws and international treaties could meet the referendum requirements… Then we realised the Ukraine treaty, which had been an issue for years, was a potential referendum subject.’Taxpayers’ moneyAnd all this time we have been thinking it’s about Ukraine. That this was the reason Ukrainian students and dozens of others have been over here campaigning. That this is why thousands of words have been written and millions of euros of taxpayers’ money have been spent.No. The reality is that a bunch of smart arses with government-funded jobs thought it a good idea to force a referendum on something which has already been decided. No doubt these same people will shortly rev up a campaign for votes for a real Nexit referendum.It is nasty and manipulative – a prank pulled by arrogant, clever people who refused to appear on the NRC’s photograph and said they did not want their jobs made public because they are acting in a private capacity. No, I don’t think they should get into trouble at work because of their actions, but I do think they should have the guts to show their faces to the world.Toilet paperAs someone who has paid taxes in the Netherlands for 30 years but has no vote, I am outraged that my money is being so cynically used: that the referendum committee approved some idiot’s application to spend nearly €50,000 printing toilet paper with anti-Ukrainian statements. That private companies were given similar amounts to hand out biscuits to members of the public.This referendum is about fake democracy and, by voting in it, we are perpetuating the myth that there is some kind of check over the excesses of government and giving credence to the deliberate manipulation of millions of people.We should not be playing into the hands of the people who made this referendum a reality, even if over 400,000 people signed a petition to make sure it was held.If we want to debate a Nexit, let us do it openly and honestly, not by the back door and by wasting taxpayers’ money. This referendum is part of a cynical game. We should not give it the 30% turnout its supporters need.  More >


The lost years: the state has failed to combat terrorism

The lost years: the state has failed to combat terrorism

The state has failed to come up with a convincing counterstory to terrorism, says professor of jurisprudence Paul Cliteur.Perhaps one of the most remarkable facts to emerge from the confusion surrounding the attacks in Brussels is that very few people regard this as a failure on the part of the state. But that’s exactly what it is, isn’t it? Why else do we have states? A state is an organisation which purports to protect its citizens from each other and from attacks by other states.This primary function of the state is called the ‘monopoly on violence’. The state disarms its citizens, puts in place a system of law enforcement and a judicial system and arbitrates in conflicts. But since 9/11 and the many attacks that came in its wake it is starting to look as if the state is incapable, unwilling or not intending to take on this role.Politicians talk about terrorist attacks as if they are a natural phenomenon, something you can show your sadness about in a march or by burning a few candles, but never as administrative failures on their part.If president Hollande can mobilise 70,000 police officers on January 6, why were there only two guarding the premises of Charlie Hebdo on February 4? And why, after almost 30 years, is Salman Rushdie still having to move from place to place like a hunted animal?It seems as if the state thinks the attacks will stop by themselves if you don’t dig too deeply into their root causes. And the cause is a way of thinking. What the Kouachi brothers, Coulibaly and Abdelslam have in common is a set of ideals. Call it ‘religion’, an ‘ideology’ or a combination of the two. Whatever we call it, it’s clearly not going away by not paying attention to it.You could put it like this: the state has not developed a ‘cultural counterterrorism’ offensive to any great extent. On the contrary, politicians think (are convinced even) that it would do no good and even be counterproductive (‘attitudes would become even more entrenched’).And so the market is deluged with propaganda celebrating armed struggle in far-flung countries without any convincing counterstory from the state; one that features democracy, the state of law, human rights, and life in a world where it’s normal to read books with images of every god and prophet this world has ever known.Of course attackers have to be tracked down, prosecuted and sentenced. And of course geopolitical factors come into play. But terrorism is also a way of thinking, a mindset that has to be analysed by looking at its religious-ideological basis. That hasn’t happened in the last 15 years.That is why these years are lost years in terms of combating terrorism. Perhaps Brussels will be the wake-up call and things will change. ‘Oh holy Socrates, pray for us,’ Erasmus said, and pray we should for that change to come about.This is a short version of the annual Socrates lecture organised by the Dutch Humanist Association     More >


Dutch elite forfeits moral leadership (but hangs on to its second homes)

Dutch elite forfeits moral leadership (but hangs on to its second homes)

The Dutch elite has lost its moral leadership, writes political scientist Meindert Fennema.In an interview with writer and historian Geert Mak in Belgian newspaper De Standaard, the interviewer refers to the fact that in 1956 Geert’s father took in Hungarian refugees. Geert says he has fond memories of those refugees. The interviewer then asks him if he would do the same for Syrian refugees. ‘Well,' Geert says, ‘my father did have quite a big house.’ And hesitantly he adds, ‘if needs must, I would.’I think the biggest difference between Geert Mak and his father is not the size of their homes. Geert’s father was a clergyman in a different era. That is where the crucial difference lies.Suicides in asylum seeker centresUntil the seventies refugees were housed by private individuals, with the Church or the Red Family as intermediaries. In the nineties, solidarity became a matter for the government. When I called the vicar of Bloemendaal the other day, I asked him if his church was doing anything for the refugees. He was very candid and said: ‘No, but it’s a jolly good idea. It hadn’t occurred to me.’These days refugees are no longer the responsibility of the church but of the COA, a professional organisation whose director earned, until recently, a salary well over the ‘Balkenende norm’ (a cap on salaries in the public sector, DN).Two weeks ago I went to see Majtaba Jalali at the asylum seeker centre in Alphen aan den Rijn, which houses 1,100 young men in a former prison, all perfectly organised. The only difference with the prison next door is that the prison doors in the prison used to house the refugees aren’t locked and that the number of suicides is appallingly high. Someone tried to kill himself only last Saturday. Ambulances are a regular feature.A status holder in my gardenThe mark of a professional organisation is that it likes to monopolise its services. That’s true for the COA but also for refugee organisation Vluchtelingenwerk Nederland. When I rang Vluchtelingenwerk Bloemendaal to ask them if I could house a status holder (someone with a temporary residence permit, DN) in the house in my garden, they said: ‘We would advise against it. These people are often very traumatised. It will be problematic.’In the end my wife and I managed to find an asylum seeker but it was a long road that took us via the ‘een gastgezin voor een vluchteling’  (a foster family for a refugee, DN) site to the ChristenUnie. The ChristenUnie still offers practical solidarity and moral leadership. But it’s parish is diminishing.Our tolerance may have increased over the last 60 years but we have outsourced our solidarity to the government. And the government in its turn is offloading the refugees on the people living in Groningen or Drenthe, the Veluwe, Brabant, Limburg, Steenbergen and Alphen aan den Rijn.Any protests from these people are labelled an annoying form of xenophobia. Historian and commentator Maarten van Rossem, who lives in a posh house in Utrecht and has never seen a refugee in the flesh in his life, called the protesters idiots and fascists.Second homes for refugeesFive months ago I called on all second home owners (some 500,000) to make their second homes available to house asylum seekers. 100,000 second homes could see 200,000 to 400,000 extra refugees housed without costs.I received one spontaneous reaction. It was from someone from a famous Labour party family. She emailed to say: ‘I wouldn’t wish it on any refugee to live in the remote French countryside. You can’t get anywhere without a car, people there are very xenophobic, services are few and far between and the house is very difficult to heat in winter.’ My answer to her was: ‘I didn’t mean your third home but your second home, here in Noord-Holland.’ I haven’t heard from her since.The Dutch elite has lost its moral leadership. The people are left without counsel and turn away from reason.This article is based on a speech given by Meindert Fennema at the Stadsschouwburg debate Wat er op het spel staat! (What is at stake!) in Amsterdam on March 21  More >


Shortage of programmers and engineers will push up wages

Shortage of programmers and engineers will push up wages

Economist Mathijs Bouman thinks programmers and otherwise talented folk will push up the average wage.The Netherlands has two million unemployed, many more than the official tally of 600,000, according to a recent report from the Dutch central bank. It’s a labour surplus which will put any thoughts of big pay increases a long way into the future, even if the economy is showing signs of recovery, the bank opined.Really? The bank seems to be awfully sure of itself. Perhaps it was wrong to include all those who said they want to work more hours, even if they worked full time. At the same time half a million people who said they wanted to work fewer hours were ignored. Why? And why would the lack of trained welders or IT experts or otherwise talented folk not lead to a higher average wage?An email from the Intelligence GroupIf you really want to know about wage pressure it would be advisable to find out how difficult it is for companies to recruit the right staff. You might think: well, what are you waiting for! But it’s not as easy as you think. Reliable data on the lack of skilled workers are hard to come by. We know these people are needed but where? Then labour market researchers Intelligence Group sent me an email. They had some figures that might interest me.What they had was the result of their annual survey in which they asked 16,000 workers if they had been approached by head hunters or other potential employers to apply for a job in the last year and if so, how often. The whole thing was measured against the whole of the working population in the Netherlands in order to come up with a representative result.Based on this survey I conclude that labour market shortages are increasing and for some professions things are looking quite desperate.A headhunter callsOf course not everyone gets regular phone calls from a head hunter. Over 60% of the respondents were not called at all in 2015. But 39% were asked to consider a different job at least once. 21% were asked more than once in a quarter and 8% asked several times a month. 2% were positively badgered, with requests to come aboard at least once a week by a head hunter or employer.In 2014, 36% of Dutch workers were propositioned at least once by someone other than their present employer. In the year before that is was 32%. And in 2012 only 29% were asked to desert their present job. The number of workers who have had temptation put in their way has risen four years in a row. It’s a clear sign of an increasing labour market shortage.LinkedIn off lineThose who are being approached on a weekly basis are the most relevant for the upward wage trend. Who are the ones that are being stalked most relentlessly? Exactly: it’s programmers.Smart industry is up and coming and it’s not just ICT companies who are looking for programmers, it’s pretty much everyone else as well. 38% of programmers are approached with a job offer more than once a week. Some have taken their LinkedIn account off line because of it. Engineers and technical staff account for 32%. System developers come in third. In fourth place we find... economists, although I have a suspicion that we are talking econometricians rather than your run-of- the-mill macro-economists.These are the shortages which will be pushing up the average wage, regardless of those employed in other sectors who may or may not want to work an extra couple of hours.This article was published earlier in the Financieele Dagblad  More >


‘Our way of life’ and those pitch black days

‘Our way of life’ and those pitch black days

Today I have nothing clever to say about the central European bank, writes economist Mathijs Bouman, in the wake of the Brussels bombs.First there is an 8.30 tweet from @LeMondeLive about a ‘double conflagration’, two explosions in the departure lounge at Zaventum airport in Brussels.Shortly afterwards I see images of people running from a smoking building. It’s obviously going to be one of those black days again, a day of watching tv disconsolately, a day that grows progressively worse with every new death and every new detail about the attacks.Perhaps you’re expecting a little piece about the latest policy analysis of the CPB , or a clever remark about the European Central Bank.  But I haven’t anything to say about that now.I am watching news bulletins with a heavy heart. Nothing clever comes to mind.I’m listening to Belgian prime minister Charles Michel who tells us, first in French and then in Dutch, that ‘what we feared might happen has happened’.I’m listening to German home affairs minister Thomas de Maizière who says this is an attack on our freedom and our mobility.I’m watching prime minister Mark Rutte who talks of ‘premeditated murder’ and ‘a direct attack on our way of life’. It’s one of those pitch black days, when things like this have to be said.ClichéWe have heard them many times before. After 9/11, after the murder of Theo van Gogh, after the attacks in London, Madrid, Paris. And now Brussels. ‘This is an attack on our way of life’. It’s a cliché but true all the same.A man straps on an explosives belt. He thinks that this is what his God and his friends want him to do. He puts himself in a busy place, an airport or an underground station, among ordinary people. People on their way to work. People who would have wanted to keep their little cog in society turning.But the man with the explosive belt thinks they should die. As a symbolic gesture, to say that there is something wrong with the way they are living their lives and the freedom they enjoy.GodMy children are coming back from school in a bit. What do I tell them? How am I going to explain this? If this is an attack on our way of life how should we defend ourselves? The brave answer to this is: to keep on living the way we do.But isn’t that a little too simplistic? This morning before he went to school my youngest said: ‘What I don’t really understand is that there are people who still believe in god’.I don’t understand it either. And lots more besides.This column appeared earlier in the Financieele Dagblad  More >


Permanent contracts are good for competitiveness, say professors

Permanent contracts are good for competitiveness, say professors

Employers are ignoring the importance of 'tacit knowledge' in their quest for easy ways to get rid of workers, at their and the economy's peril, say five senior economics professors.Much criticism, especially from the ranks of the employers’ organisations, has been levelled against the changes in the new Dutch dismissal law (Wet Werk en Zekerheid): the new rules will make it virtually impossible for small businesses to hire people and instead of fewer flexible contracts there will be more. Employment lawyers will have their work cut out.The most salient feature of their criticism is that is seems to be focused on the question of how to get rid of staff as simply as possible, as if downsizing is the only relevant business strategy. It exemplifies the way employers today regard the people who work for them. No longer an essential production factor contributing to the success of a business, they are increasingly seen as a costly encumbrance and a risk factor.Not only are they failing to do justice to their workers, who are having to cope with job uncertainty, they are also selling themselves short. In the Dutch knowledge economy workers are becoming the central and distinguishing production factor.Tacit knowledgeThe physical means of production – machines, computers, natural resources – can be bought in the market place by any company, as can codified knowledge, such as software and licences. It is the tacit knowledge that workers have which makes the difference. This knowledge - about the ways people (co)operate within the company, the business culture, the relationship with clients and suppliers – can be a deciding factor in scuppering the competition.Tacit knowledge, however, presupposes a lasting tie with the company in question. Such knowledge takes  time to build and whether or not workers are prepared to put in that time will depend on their future within the company. Why take the trouble to get to grips with the culture of a company when you could be out next year, or even next month?The long-term success of a company is determined to a great extent by the involvement and dedication of its workers. But that presupposes that the company sees its workers as an important production factor in need of a reasonable measure of job security and career opportunities. Only then will companies and workers want to invest in their mutual relationship and build company-specific knowledge.Research shows that companies with a bigger share of staff on permanent contracts perform better when it comes to (technological) innovation. A staff member on a flexible contract who sees an opportunity to improve the efficiency of the production process so the company can do the same job with fewer people is not likely to share his thoughts on the matter.If the person in question is on a permanent contract and in no danger of losing his job he will be much more willing to contribute to quality improvement and innovation, thus making the company more competitive.Trial periodIt makes sense for companies to want to make sure they have taken on the right person for the job. Often the official two-month trial period is too short for complex positions and in such cases employers prefer to offer temporary contracts. But there is no reason why, after two years, a company would not put a satisfactory worker on a permanent contract.Circumstances can change and there may be commercial reasons why a person may be let go. But the new rules provide for this. Those in doubt have only to ask the staff at V&D and TSN. If the performance of a worker becomes less satifactory with time, the responsibility for this usually lies with both the worker and the employer.Training, more challenging work or adapting the job can improve the situation. The employer only has good grounds for dismissal if this proves to be impossible or if the worker is reluctant to comply. The new rules offer the same possibility provided the employer can produce an adequate dossier.The new dismissal law has its flaws and may have to be adapted but most critics seem to think that it is more important for Dutch commerce to avoid risk and reduce short-term cost than to invest in quality and innovation.A lack of training for flexible workers will, in time, erode their sustainable employability. Employers are ignoring the justifiable need of people for continuity and security. By doing so they are also damaging businesses and the competiveness of the economy.This article was published earlier in the Volkskrant by economics professsors Paul de Beer, Paul Boselie, Ronald Dekker, Ewald Engelen, Andries de Grip , Alfred Kleinknecht, Joan Muysken, Janneke Plantenga, Frank Pot, Joop Schippers and Esther-Mirjam Sent   More >