Dutch police shot dead four people in a total of 23 shooting incidents last year, the public prosecution department said.
A further 20 people were wounded, the lowest figure since at least 2013.
All cases in which Dutch police use their guns and people are injured or killed are formally investigated by an independent police unit.
Four people were also shot dead by police in 2016, when 33 people were injured. In 2015 there were no deaths but 30 injuries.