In total, 677 people committed suicide while living in mental health institutions last year, up from 539 five years ago, according to health ministry figures.
The ministry published an overview of the statistics following a freedom of information request from broadcaster VPRO.
The health ministry inspectorate, which compiles the figures, was unable to give a cause for the rise, news agency ANP said.
Figures published in August by the national statistics office CBS show 1,753 people took their own life in 2012. This is an increase of 6% on 2011 and the fifth increase in a row.
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