An Iraqi asylum seeker set himself on fire at a refugee centre in Utrecht on Monday, news agency ANP said.
The man was told last week his claim for refugee status had been rejected and he must return to Iraq.
He was taken to hospital but no details about his condition were given by news agency ANP.
Iraq refuses to accept returning refugees who have been forced to leave the Netherlands. Nevertheless, junior justice minister Fred Teeven is determined to press ahead with deportations, ANP said.
In April 2011, an Iranian refugee died after setting himself on fire when his application for asylum was rejected.